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List of Thermal Expansion Coefficients (CTE) for Natural and Engineered Materials

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Materials Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient
- α -
(10-6 m/(m K))*)
ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) thermoplastic 73.8
ABS -glass fiber-reinforced 30.4
Acetals 106.5
Acetal - glass fiber-reinforced 39.4
Acrylic 75
Alumina (aluminium oxide, Al2O3)                 (Sputtering Target)(powders)(Milling media)   (Sapphire/Single Crystal)(Planetary Milling Jars)(Roller Milling Jars)(High Purity Powders) 8.1
Aluminum (Sputtering Target) 21 - 24
Aluminum Alloy AlSi7Mg (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 21-22
Aluminum Alloy AlSi10Mg (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 20
Aluminum Alloy AlSi12 (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 20
Aluminum Metaphosphate, Al(PO3)3 (High Purity Powder) 9.6
Aluminum nitride (Sputtering Target)(AlN template on Sapphire 5.3
Amber 50 - 60
Antimony (Sputtering Target) 9 - 11
Arsenic 4.7
Bakelite, bleached 22
Barium 20.6
Barium Fluoride, BaF2 (High Purity Powder)(Single crystal and Substrates)(Sputtering Targets) 18.1
Barium ferrite,  10
Barium Titanate, BaTiO3 (Sputtering Target) (Single Crystal Substrate) 9.4
Benzocyclobutene 42
Beryllium 11.5
Bismuth (Sputtering Target) 13
Bismuth Germanate, Bi4Ge3O12                    (Scintillation Crystals) 7
Bismuth Oxide, Bi2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-26.7, b-6.6, c-9.0
Boron Carbide,B4C (Sputtering Target) 4.5
Boron Nitride, BN (Sputtering Target) 1.0
Brass 18.7
Brick masonry 5.5
Bronze 18.0
Cadmium (Sputtering Target) 30
Cadmium Difluoride, CdF2 (Sputtering Target) 21.8
Cadmium Selenide, CdSe (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-6.26, c-4.28
Cadmium Sulfide, CdS (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-6.26, c-3.5
Cadmium Telluride, CdTe (Sputtering Target) 4.8
Calcium 22.3
Calcium Fluoride, CaF2 (Single Crystal)(Sputtering Target)(Eu doped Scintillation Crystal) 18.85 
Calcium Fluoride Europium doped, Eu:CaF2   (Eu doped Scintillation Crystal) 19.5
Cast Iron Gray 10.8
Caoutchouc 66 - 69
Celluloid 100
Cellulose acetate (CA) 130
Cellulose acetate butynate (CAB) 96 - 171
Cellulose nitrate (CN) 80 - 120
Cement 10.0
Cesium Iodide, CsI (Scintillation Crystals) 54
Cerium (Sputtering Target) 5.2
Cerium Dioxide,  CeO2 (Sputtering Target) 11.2
Cerium Fluoride, CeF3 (Scintillation Crystal) (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-12.9, c-16.5
Cerium Oxide, Ce2O3 (High Purity Powder) 12
Chlorinated polyether 80
Chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC) 66.6
Chromium (Sputtering Target) 6.2
Chromium Boride, Cr5B3 (Sputtering Target) 13.7
Chromium Carbide, Cr3C2 (Sputtering Target) 10.3
Chromium Diboride CrB2 (Sputtering Target) 6.2 - 7.5
Chromium Disilicide, CrSi2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-8.2, c-9.0
Chromium Monoboride, CrB 12.3
Chromium Nitride, CrN 2.3
Chromium Nitride, Cr2N  9.4
Chromium Oxide, Cr2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Target) 9.0
Clay tile structure 5.9
Cobalt (Sputtering Target) 12
Cobalt Chrome Molybdenum alloy, CoCrMo (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 11.5
Cobalt Chrome Tungsten alloy, CoCrW (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 21
Cobalt Disilicide, CoSi2  10
Concrete 14.5
Concrete structure 9.8
Constantan 18.8
Copper (Sputtering Target) 16.6
Copper, Beryllium 25 17.8
Copper Tin alloy, CuSn10 (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 18
Corundum, sintered 6.5
Cupronickel 30% 16.2
Diamond (Carbon) 1.18
Duralumin 23
Dysprosium (Sputtering Target) 9.9
Dysprosium Oxide, Dy2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 6.6
Ebonite 76.6
Epoxy, cast resins & compounds, unfilled 45 - 65
Erbium (Sputtering Target) 12.2
Erbium Oxide, Er2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 6.6
Ethylene ethyl acrylate (EEA) 205
Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) 180
Europium (Sputtering Target) 35
Europium Oxide, Eu2O3 (High Purity Powder) 6.4
Fluoroethylene propylene (FEP) 135

Fluorspar, CaF2 (Single Crystal)    (Sputtering Target)

19.5
Gadolinium (Sputtering Target) 9
Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG), Gd3Ga5O12 (Single Crystal)(Nd doped Single Crystal) 8
Gadolinium Oxide, Gd2O3 (High Purity Powder) 7.6
Gadolinium Tetraboride, GdB4  7.0
Gallium 37
Gallium Arsenide, GaAs (Sputtering Target)  (Single Crystal Substrates 5.73
Gallium Oxide, Ga2O3 (Single Crystal Wafer)(High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-3.77, b-7.8, c-6.34  
Gallium Nitride, GaN (Single Crystal) 3.17
Germanium (Sputtering Target)(Single Crystal) 5.9
Germanium Oxide, GeO2 (High Purity Powder) 7.5
Germanium Telluride, GeTe (Sputtering Target) 11.2
German silver 18.4
Glass, hard 5.9
Glass, Pyrex 4.0
Glass, plate 9.0
Gold (Sputtering Target) 14.2
Gold - copper 15.5
Gold - platinum 15.2
Granite 7.9
Graphite, pure (Carbon) (Sputtering Target)  (Anode Materials) 2 - 6
Gunmetal 18
Gutta percha 198
Hafnium (Sputtering Target) 5.9
Hafnium Carbide, HfC (Sputtering Target) 6.9
Hafnium Dioxide,  HfO2 (Sputtering Target) 6.0
Hafnium Disilicide, HfSi2 (Sputtering Target) 16.4
Hafnium Nitride, HfN (Sputtering Target) 6.9
Hard alloy K20 6
Hastelloy C22 (Sputtering Target) 12.4
Hastelloy C276 (Sputtering Target) 11.2
Hastelloy N (Sputtering Target) 12.3
Holmium (Sputtering Target) 11.2
Holmium Oxide, Ho2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 7.4
Ice, 0oC water 51
Inconel 625                                                    (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 13.1
Inconel 718                                                    (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 12.8
Indium (Sputtering Target) 33
Indium Antimonide, InSb (Sputtering Target) 5.37

Indium Arsinide, InAs (Single Crystal)(Sputtering Target)

4.52
Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO), In2Ga2ZnO7 (Sputtering Target) 4.31
Indium Oxide, In2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Target) 7.2
Indium Phosphide, InP (Single Crystal) 4.5
Indium Sulfide, In2S3 (Sputtering Target)

Tetragonal Form:                  Parallel to a-11.7, c-6.7

Trigonal Form:                    Parallel to a-14.1, c-26.7

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO),  In2-xSnxO3 (Sputtering Target)(ITO coated glass and film) 8
Invar 1.5
Iridium (Sputtering Target) 6.4
Iron, pure (Sputtering Target) 12.0
Iron, cast 10.4
Iron, forged 11.3
Iron Boride, FeB (Sputtering Target) 23
(Di)Iron Boride Fe2B (Sputtering Target) 7.65
(Tri)Iron Carbide, Fe3C (Sputtering Target) 8.6
Kapton 20
Langasite (LGSO), La3Ga5SiO14 (Single Crystal) 16
Langatate (LGT), La3Gao5.5Ta0.5O14 (Single Crystal) 7.65
Lanthanum (Sputtering Target) 12.1
Lanthanum Aluminate, LaAlO3 (Single Crystal)(Sputtering Target) 9.4
Lanthanum Fluoride, LaF3 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-15.8, c-11
Lanthanum Hexaboride, LaB6 (Sputtering Target) 6.2
Lanthanum Manganate, LaMnO3          (Sputtering Target) 11.62
Lanthanum Oxide, La2O3 (High Purity Powder) 8.6
Lanthanum-Strontium Aluminium Tantalate (LSAT), (La0.18Sr0.82)(Al0.59Ta0.41)O3 (Single Crystal) 10
Lead (Sputtering Target) 28.9
Lead Fluoride, PbF2 (Single Crystal)(Sputtering Target) 29
Lead Selenide, PbSe (Sputtering Target) 19
Lead Sulfide, PbS (Sputtering Target) 20.1
Lead Telluride, PbTe (Sputtering Target) 20.4
Lead Tungstate, PbWO4 (Single Crystal) Parallel to a-29.5, c-12.8
Limestone 8
Lithium (Chips for Batteries) 46
Lithium Aluminate,  LiALO2 (Single Crystal) Parallel to a-10.1, c-16.5 
Lithium Fluoride, LiF (Sputtering Target)(High Purity Powder)(Single Crystal) 37
Lithium Niobate,  LiNbO3 (Single Crystal)      (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-15.4, c-7.5
Lithium Tantalate,  LiTaO3 (Single Crystal) Parallel to a-16, c-4
Lutetium (Sputtering Target) 9.9
Lutetium Aluminum Garnet (LuAG),Y3Al5O12 6.0
Lutetium Oxide, Lu2O3 (High Purity Powder) 7.7
Macor 9.3
Magnalium 23.8
Magnesium (Sputtering Target) 25
Magnesium Aluminate, MgAl2O4 (Single Crystal) 6.72
Magnesium Fluoride,MgF2 (Sputtering Target)(Single Crystal)(High Purity Powder)  (Single Crystal Substrates)

Parallel to C axis 13.7                Perpendicular to C axis 8.48

Magnesium Oxide, MgO (Sputtering Target)(Crucible)(Single Crystal Substrate)(High Purity Powder)

10.8
Manganese (Sputtering Target) 22
Manganin 18.1
Marble 5.5 - 14.1
Masonry 4.7 - 9.0
Mercury 61
Mica 3
Molybdenum (Sputtering Target) 5
Molybdenum Boride, Mo2B (Sputtering Target) 4.78
Molybdenum Carbide, Mo2C (Sputtering Target) 7.8
Molybdenum Disilicide, MoSi2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a = 5.6, c = 4.1
Molybdenum Oxide, MoO3 (Sputtering Target) 5
Monel metal 13.5
Mortar 7.3 - 13.5
Neodymium (Sputtering Target) 9.6
Neodymium Copper Oxide,Nd2CuO4 (Sputtering Target) 10.1
Neodymium Fluoride,  NdF3 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-17.4, c-14.7
Neodymium Hexaboride,  NdB6 (Sputtering Target) 7.3
Neodymium Oxide, Nd2O3 (High Purity Powder) 14.7
Nickel (Sputtering Target) 13.0
Nickel Chromium (Nichrome), NiCr                 (Sputtering Target) 14
Nickel Oxide, NiO (Sputtering Target) 10
Niobium (Sputtering Target) 7.3
Niobium Carbide, NbC (Sputtering Target) 7.81
Niobium Disilicide, NbSi Parallel to a = 9.1, c = 8.7
Niobium Nitride, NbN (Sputtering Target) 10.1
Niobium Oxide, Nb2O5 (Sputtering Target)    (High Purity Powder) 5.6
Niobium Selenide, NbSe(Sputtering Target) Parallel to a = 6.6, c = 19.9
Niobium Silicide, Nb5Si3 (Sputtering Target) 7.6
Nylon, general purpose 72
Nylon, Type 11, molding and extruding compound 100
Nylon, Type 12, molding and extruding compound 80.5
Nylon, Type 6, cast (Planetary Milling Jar)(Roller Milling Jar) 85
Nylon, Type 6/6, molding compound 80
Oak, perpendicular to the grain 54
Osmium 5
Palladium (Sputtering Target) 11.8
Paraffin 106 - 480
Phenolic resin without fillers 60 - 80
Phosphor bronze 16.7
Plaster 16.4
Plastics 40 - 120
Platinum (Sputtering Target) 9.0
Plutonium 54
Polyacrylonitrile 70
Polyallomer 91.5
Polyamide (PA) 110
Polybutylene (PB) 130
Polycarbonate (PC) 70.2
Polycarbonate - glass fiber-reinforced 21.5
Polyester 123.5
Polyester - glass fiber-reinforced 25
Polyethylene (PE) 200
Polyethylene (PE) - High Molecular Weight 108
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (Indium Tin Oxide on PET)(Monolayer Graphene on PET) 59.4
Polyphenylene - glass fiber-reinforced 35.8
Polypropylene (PP), unfilled (Single Crystal, Wafer Substrate Cases) 100 - 200
Polypropylene - glass fiber-reinforced 32
Polystyrene (PS) 70
Polysulfone (PSO) 55.8
Polyurethane (PUR), rigid (Planetary and Roller Milling Jars) 57.6
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 50.4
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) 127.8
Porcelain, Industrial 6.5
Potassium 83
Potassium Bromide, KBr (Single Crystal) 43
Potassium Chloride, KCl (Single Crystal) 36
Potassium Tantalate, KTaO3 (Single Crystal) 4.03
Praseodymium (Sputtering Target) 6.7
Praseodymium Fluoride, PrF3 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-16.4, c-14
Praseodymium Oxide, Pr6O11 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 12
Promethium 11
Quartz (Single Crystal Wafer)(Monolayer Graphene on Quartz) 0.77 - 1.4
Rhenium (Sputtering Target) 6.7
Rhenium Disilicide, ReSi2  Parallel to a = 4.2, c = 7.5
Rhodium 8
Rock salt 40.4
Rubber, hard 77
Ruthenium (Sputtering Target) 9.1
Samarium (Sputtering Target) 12.7
Samarium Oxide, Sm2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 8.5
Sandstone 11.6
Sapphire (Single Crystal and Wafers) Please see this page
Scandium (Sputtering Target) 10.2
Scandium Oxide (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 6.7
Selenium (Sputtering Target) 3.8
Silicon (Single Crystal Wafer)(Sputtering Target)(N-type Sputtering Target)(P-type Sputtering Target) Please see this page
Silicon Carbide, SiC (Single Crystal Wafer)   (Sputtering Target) Please see this page
Silicon Dioxide (Fused Silica, amorphous),  

SiO2 (Sputtering Target)(Wafers and Substrates)(High Purity Powder)

5.6
Silicon Nitride,Si3N4 (Sputtering Target) 4.3
Silver (Sputtering Target) 19.5
Sitall 0.15
Slate 10.4
Sodium 70
Sodium Chloride, NaCl (Single Crystal) 44
Sodium Fluoride, NaF (Sputtering Target) 34
Solder lead - tin, 50% - 50% 24.0
Speculum metal 19.3
Steatite 8.5
Steel 12.0
Steel 18 Ni(300) (Maraging) (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 10.3
Steel Invar 36 (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 1.3
Steel M2 (Tool)(Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 11
Steel Stainless Austenitic (304) (Milling media)(Planetary Milling Jars)(Roller Milling Jars) 17.3
Steel Stainless Austenitic (310) 14.4
Steel Stainless Austenitic (316)(Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder)(Milling media)(Roller Milling Jars)(Planetary Milling Jars) 16.0
Steel Stainless Ferritic (410)(Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 9.9
Steel Stainless 17-4PH (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 10.8
Steel Stainless 440C (Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 10.2
Strontium 22.5
Strontium Fluoride, SrF2 (Sputtering Target) 18.4
Strontium Titanate, SrTiO3 (Sputtering Target)(Single Crystal Wafers & Substrates) (Fe doped single Crystal)(Nb doped single Crystal) 9
Tantalum (Sputtering Target) 6.5
Tantalum Carbide, TaC (Sputtering Target) 6.3
Tantalum Diboride, TaB2  8.2
Tantalum Disilicide, TaSi2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a = 6.8, c = 6.1
Tantalum Nitride, TaN (Sputtering Target) 3.6
Tantalum Pentoxide, Ta2O(Sputtering Target)(High Purity Powder) 6.7
Tantalum Sulfide, TaS2 (Sputtering Target) 12 - 15
Teflon, (Sputtering Target)(Planetary Milling Jars)(Roller Milling Jars) 120 - 170
Tellurium (Sputtering Target) 36.9
Tellurium Dioxide,TeO2 (Single Crystal) Parallel to a = 19.5, c = 6.1 
Terbium (Sputtering Target) 10.3
Terne 11.6
Thallium 29.9
Thorium 12
Thulium (Sputtering Target) 13.3
Thulium Oxide, Tm2O3 (High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 6.6
Tin (Sputtering Target) 23.4
Tin Oxide SnO2 (Sputtering Targets) 4.0
Titanium (Sputtering Target) 8.6
Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4v (TC4)(Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing Powder) 8.7 - 9.1
Titanium Carbide, TiC (Sputtering Target) 7.4
Titanium Diboride, TiB2 (Sputtering Targets) 7
Titanium Dioxide (Rutile), TiO2 (Single Crystal)(High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Target) Parallel to a = 7.14, c = 9.19 
Titanium Disilicide, TiSi2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a = 6.9, c = 5.4 
Titanium Monoxide, TiO (Sputtering Target) 6.6
Titanium Nitride, TiN (Sputtering Target) 9.4
Titanium (III) Oxide, Ti2O3 (High Purity Powder) 7.6
Titanium Silicide, Ti5Si3  7.5
Topas 5 - 8
Tungsten (Sputtering Target) 4.4
Tungsten Carbide (Cobalt Stabilized), WC-6%Co (Sputtering Target)(Milling Media)       (Planetary Milling Jars)(Pellet Pressing Die) 5.5(pure) 4.9 (6% Co)
Tungsten Diboride, WB2  Parallel to a-6.5, c-8.8 
Tungsten Diselenide, WSe2 (Sputtering Target) 7
Tungsten Disilicide, WSi2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-6.04, c-9.39
Tungsten Disulfide, WS2 (Sputtering Target) 7 - 10
Tungsten Ditelluride, WTe2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-10.1, b-7.5, c-4.5
Tungsten (VI) Oxide, WO3 (High purity Powder)(Sputtering Target) 8 - 15
Uranium 13.9
Vanadium (Sputtering Target) 8
Vanadium Carbide, VC (Sputtering Target) 7.3
Vanadium Disilicide, VSi2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a-8.0, c-7.5
Vanadium Nitride, VN 8.1
Vanadium Oxide, V2O5 (Sputtering Target) Parallel a-3.3, b- -1.7, c-42.2
Vinyl Ester 16 - 22
Vulcanite 63.6
Wax 2 - 15
Wedgwood ware 8.9
Wood, fir 3.7
Wood, parallel to grain 3
Wood, across (perpendicular) to grain 30
Wood, pine 5

YCOB, Ca4YO(BO3)3 (NLO Crystal)

Parallel a-9.9, b-8.2, c-12.8
Ytterbium (Sputtering Target) 26.3
Ytterbium Fluoride, YbF(Sputtering Target) 8.5
Ytterbium Oxide, Yb2O(High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 8.5
Yttrium (Sputtering Target) 10.6
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG),Y3Al5O3 (YAG Single Crystal)(Ce:YAG single Crystal)(Er:YAG Single Crystal)(Nd:YAG Single Crystal)(Yb:YAG Single Crystal)(Ce:YAG LED Phosphor) 6.1(undoped)
Yttrium Fluoride, YF(Sputtering Target) 28.5
Yttrium Oxide, Y2O(High Purity Powder)(Sputtering Targets) 8.1
Yttrium Orthovanadate, YVO4 (Single Crystal)     (Nd doped Single Crystal) Parallel to a = 4.43, c = 11.37 
Zinc (Sputtering Target) 29.7
Zinc Oxide, ZnO (Single Crystal)(Sputtering Target)(High Purity Powder) Parallel to a = 6.5, c = 3.7 
Zinc Selenide, ZnSe (Sputtering Target) 7.1
Zinc Sulfide, ZnS (Sputtering Target) 6.5
Zinc Telluride, ZnTe (Sputtering Target) 8.19
Zirconium (Sputtering Target) 5.7
Zirconium Carbide, ZrC (Sputtering Target) 6.7
Zirconium Diboride, ZrB2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a = 6.7, c = 6.9
Zirconium Disilicide, ZrSi2 (Sputtering Target) Parallel to a = 1.1, c = 8.6
Zirconium Nitride, ZrN (Sputtering Target) 7.2
Zirconia, ZrO2 (High Purity Powder) 7
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), 3-8% Y2O3 /ZrO2  (Sputtering Target)(Single Crystal)(Milling Media)(Planetary Milling Jars)(High Purity Powder) 3% = 10.8, 8% = 10.5

*)  m/m = meter per meter

Most values for temperature at 25 oC (77 oF).

  • tK = tC + 273.16
  • 1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm
  • 1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m

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