Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have recently emerged as a promising photovoltaic (PV) candidate. Perovskites have a general chemical formula of AMX3, in which the M metallic cations and X anions form MX64- octahedra with A cations occupying the 12-fold coordinated holes within the cavity. These materials exhibit desiring optical-electrical properties for PV devices, long carrier diffusion length, strong optical absorption, suitable and tunable bandgaps, and high defect tolerance. The record certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs has recently risen to 24.2%, which is way higher than traditional silicon based solar cell and thus attracted extensive research interests.
PSCs have layered device structure that includes a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass substrate, an n-type semiconductor as the electron-transport-layer (ETL), a perovskite absorber layer, a p-type semiconductor as the hole-transport-layer (HTL), and a back contact (metal, or TCO, or carbon), as shown below.
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