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Rare Earth Elements Technical Info

List of Rare Earth Elements (links to Wikipedia pages)

A table listing the seventeen rare earth elements, their atomic number and symbol, the etymology of their names, and their main usages (see also Applications of lanthanides) is provided here. Some of the rare earth elements are named after the scientists who discovered or elucidated their elemental properties, and some after their geographical discovery.

ZSymbolNameEtymologySelected applications
21 Sc Scandium from Latin Scandia(Scandinavia). Light aluminium-scandium alloys for aerospace components, additive in metal-halide lamps andmercury-vapor lamps,[4] radioactive tracing agent in oil refineries
39 Y Yttrium after the village of Ytterby, Sweden, where the first rare earth ore was discovered. Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) laser, yttrium vanadate (YVO4) as host for europium in TV red phosphor, YBCO high-temperature superconductors, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), yttrium iron garnet (YIG) microwave filters,[4] energy-efficient light bulbs,[5] spark plugs, gas mantles, additive to steel
57 La Lanthanum from the Greek "lanthanein", meaning to be hidden. High refractive index and alkali-resistant glass, flint, hydrogen storage, battery-electrodes, cameralenses, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries
58 Ce Cerium after the dwarf planetCeres, named after the Roman goddess of agriculture. Chemical oxidizing agent, polishing powder, yellow colors in glass and ceramics, catalyst for self-cleaning ovens, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst for oil refineries, ferrocerium flints for lighters
59 Pr Praseodymium from the Greek "prasios", meaning leek-green, and "didymos", meaning twin. Rare-earth magnets, lasers, core material for carbon arc lighting, colorant in glasses and enamels, additive in didymium glass used in welding goggles,[4] ferrocerium firesteel (flint) products.
60 Nd Neodymium from the Greek "neos", meaning new, and "didymos", meaning twin. Rare-earth magnets, lasers, violet colors in glass and ceramics, didymium glass, ceramic capacitors
61 Pm Promethium after the TitanPrometheus, who brought fire to mortals. Nuclear batteries
62 Sm Samarium after mine official, Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets. Rare-earth magnets, lasers, neutron capture, masers
63 Eu Europium after the continent ofEurope. Red and blue phosphors, lasers, mercury-vapor lamps, fluorescent lamps, NMR relaxation agent
64 Gd Gadolinium after Johan Gadolin(1760–1852), to honor his investigation of rare earths. Rare-earth magnets, high refractive index glass or garnets, lasers, X-ray tubes, computer memories,neutron capture, MRI contrast agent, NMR relaxation agent, magnetostrictive alloys such as Galfenol, steel additive
65 Tb Terbium after the village of Ytterby, Sweden. Green phosphors, lasers, fluorescent lamps, magnetostrictive alloys such as Terfenol-D
66 Dy Dysprosium from the Greek "dysprositos", meaninghard to get. Rare-earth magnets, lasers, magnetostrictive alloys such as Terfenol-D
67 Ho Holmium after Stockholm (in Latin, "Holmia"), native city of one of its discoverers. Lasers, wavelength calibration standards for optical spectrophotometers, magnets
68 Er Erbium after the village of Ytterby, Sweden. Infrared lasers, vanadium steel, fiber-optic technology
69 Tm Thulium after the mythological northern land of Thule. Portable X-ray machines, metal-halide lamps, lasers
70 Yb Ytterbium after the village of Ytterby, Sweden. Infrared lasers, chemical reducing agent, decoy flares, stainless steel, stress gauges, nuclear medicine
71 Lu Lutetium after Lutetia, the city that later became Paris. Positron emission tomography – PET scan detectors, high-refractive-index glass, lutetium tantalatehosts for phosphors