Solid electrolyte materials are used in all-solid-state Lithium batteries and other advanced lithium batteries. Compared to liquid electrolytes, batteries made with solid electrolyte have the advantages of higher energy density (~2X), better safety, and long term stability. Commonly studied solid electrolyte materials include sulfide compounds (e.g. LGPS, LPS, etc.), garnet structure oxides (e.g. LLZO with various dopants), NASICON-type phosphate glass ceramics, oxynitrides (e.g. lithium phosphorus oxynitride, LIPON), and polymers. The lithium ionic conductivity of the inorganic solid electrolyte materials ranges from 10−4 S/cm up to 10−2 S/cm at room temperature.